Opinion

IZIMVO: Ukohluthwa komhlaba (isiXhosa)

Aphiwe Qinisile

Ukohluthwa komhlaba kubanini bawo ngendlela engenabulungisa ngunobangela wendlala, ukungalingani ngokwezoqoqosho kunye nobundlobongela obuphezulu kwiilokishi zeli.

 

Imimandla eyaziwa njengeelokishi zeli namhlanje yileyo yayisaziwa njengomhlaba ongenabutyebi mandulo. Yilonto ke abantu abaNtsundu bathi bathathwa kwimihlaba yabo bayokulahlwa kwiindawo esizazi njengoogobithyolo namhlanje.

 

Injongo yayikubohlutha inqatha emlonyeni. Yayikukuba bahlale kwindawo eyodwa babengamakheswa, ukutsho apho amathuba okuba baziqalele awabo amashishini anqongopheleyo. Kwakufuneka betyiwe yindlala khonukuze bathi besokuthwaxwa bubomi bentlupheko baphinde babhadulele kwakobabantu babasusa kwiindawo zabo.

 

Iinjongo zokuba kudluliswe umthetho ka -1913 olawula umhlaba wabemi bemveli iNative Land Act ngabula makhumsha yayikukuzama ukuba kunikwe abantu abamnyama umhlaba ongatyebanga nolinganiselwa kumyinge wesixhenxe ekhulwini ngelixa owona mhlaba utyebileyo wanikwa abamhlophe.

 

Lomthetho wasungulwa waza wabangela ukuba abantu abaNtsundu bangaxhamli ngokwaneleyo kumhlaba wabo. Umyinge wamashumi asibhozo ekhulwini womhlaba waya kubantu abamhlophe nekungabo abantu benani eliphantsi xa kufikelelwa kwizibalo zabantu beli loMzantsi Afrika.

 

Nanku uLindiwe Mazibuko eveza izimvo zakhe nge Native Land Act “The 1913 Native Land Act has been described as apartheid original sin and as a start of long century of injustice and racial economic exclusion in South Africa”. Ngamafutshane uwuchaza lomthetho njengesona sono socalu-calulo nentswela bulungisa kunye nonobangela oyintsusa womsantsa okhoyo ngokwebala kwezoqoqosho.

 

Lomthetho wawugunyazisa ukuba abantu abaNtsundu bangahlala kulomhlaba wabelwa abantu abamhlophe kodwa phantsi kwesivumelwano sokuba bazokusebenzela abantu abamhlophe ngaphandle kwentlawulo. Yiyo ke lento ndisithi lomthetho wajika amatye azizonka ngoba apha umnini womhlaba ngokomthetho wenziwa isicaka sekhoboka lundwendwe kumhlaba wakhe.

 

Nangona nje lomthetho womhlaba wawubonakala ingumthetho olungiselele wonke umntu ongummi woMzantsi Afrika kodwa inyaniso yeyokuba lomthetho wawuxhanyulwa ngondlebezikhany’ ilanga kuphela.

 

Kwakwiingxoxo mpikiswano ezaziqhuba kwindlu yowiso mthetho ngalominyaka yagqithayo ondlebe zikhany’ ilanga babesithi lomthetho usungulelwe ukuba unciphise iyantlukwano phakathi kwabaNtsundu kunye nabamhlophe. Le yenye yeendlela eyayisetyenziswa ngabantu abamhlophe ukuthi lala gusha ndikuchebe kubantu abaNtsundu.

 

Kanti bona abantu abamnyama babemi kwelokuba lomthetho ugxile ekuphuculeni amafama amhlophe nasekubeni afumane umhlaba otyebileyo wokulima ukuze anyanzelise abantu abamnyama ukuba basebenze nzima okanye basebenze mahala.
Ngeminyaka yo-1910 inani labamhlophe kweli laliqikelelwa kumyinge ongama 20% kuphela kodwa ngoku kunjalo bafumana ubukhulu womhlaba oqikelelwa kumyinge wama-93% konke oku kusolwa ukuba babenza ngobungangamsha babo obaziwa njenge white supremacy ngelasemzini.

 

Urhulumente okhoyo weli lizwe phantsi kwenqkubo ye demokrasi usungule iphulo lokwenza utshintsho kwimiba edibene nomhlaba okanye ulwabiwo lomhlaba kweli lizwe ngeenjongo zokuba olutshintso luzokwenza umahluko ekulweni indlala. Siyayibona ke imiba ebhalwe phantsi kodwa umhlaba awukabikho sezandleni zabantu bawo.
Ingxelo zithi ngokutyikitywa nje ngosiba lokubhala izigidigidi zabemi belizwe loMzantsi Afrika abamnyama zaphulukana nemihlaba yazo. Ngeminyaka yo-1913 umhlaba omiwe ngabantu abamhlophe namhlanje wawungahlali abantu abamhlophe kuphela nabantu abamnyama babehlala kulomhlaba kwaye yayingabona babethabathe indawo enkulu kulomhlaba ingakumbi kulowo umiwe ngamafama amhlophe.

 

Nanku uJulius Malema ephawula ngalomba “Many of them did not pay anything for that, many of them just decided to fence the land and declare it their land without even having any documentation proving that these people are owning that land”.
Apha lo kaMalema uveza ukuthathwa komhlaba ngobuqhetseba. Uphawula ukuba abantu abasuswa kwimihlaba yabo zange bahlawulwe koko banyanzelwa ukuba baqoqoshe yonke imithwalo yabo baphume baphele.

 

Uninzi lwabantu abamhlophe ababenebango kumhlaba babefuna ukuba nolawulo kumhlaba lowo kwaye babekhuphisana nemigodi kunye needolophu eziphuhlayo. Lomthetho ka-1913 injongo zawo yayingekokususa amafama amnyama kwifama zokulima ezinengeniso kuphela kodwa injongo yabo engundoqo yayikukubagcina njengabasebenzi abangahlawulwayo hayi abantu abanokuthi baziqeshele umhlaba bazilimele ze bazithengisele okanye bazenzele ingeniso.
Umthetho we- Native Land Act 1913 wajika amatye azizonka, ngoba wetshintsha abanini bokwenene bomhlaba bangamahlwempu. Zange baphelele ekubeni ngamahlwempu kuphela kodwa babekwazizo nezicaka zabantu abamhlophe ngoba lomthetho wawugunyazisa ukuba basebenze bengafumani mvuzo.

 

Ama-Afrika ayengavumelekanga ukuba athenge umhlaba okanye ahlale kumagxamesi awayesemhlabeni owabelwa abantu abamhlophe ngaphandle kokuba babesebenza apho. Uninzi lwamafama amnyama emaphandleni kumaphondo afana neFreystata noMntlantshona abantu abamnyama babelima kwiifama zabantu abamhlophe nto leyo yaphembelela bazibone sebehlawula indawo zokulima ngesiqingatha sesivuno sabo kulo mafama amhlophe.
Ngethuba wawungekasekwa umthetho wolwabiwo lomhlaba kwaye ungekathatyathwa ngabantu abamhlophe uninzi lwabantu abaNtsundu zange lujongane nengxaki zentsokolo nendlala ngendlela olujamelene nazo namhlanje, ngamafutshane ke indlu eNtsundu yohluthwa inqatha emlonyeni ngabantu abamhlophe.

 

Ilifa lenkululeko ngokoqoqosho nelathi langcanyulwa ngabamhlophe xeshikweni kusekwa lomthetho we native land act ngomnyaka ka 1913 lashiya uninzi lwabemi boMzantsi Afrika luhluphekile lomthetho wabangela ukuba uninzi lwabantu abamnyama abengabemi belizwe loMzantsi Afrika bashiyeke bethwaxwa yindlala nentlupheko.
Ukuphunyezwa kwe Native Land Act 1913 kwabayiDyokhwe yobukhoboka eyathiwa nka emagxeni abantu abantsundu. Umhlaba omiwe ngabantu abamhlophe namhlanje ayingowabo bawuthatha ngondlela mnyama ezikakhesare kukhesare umhlaba mawubuyele kubanini bawo.

English summary:


The legislation of the Native Land Act of 1913 marked a death knell against black people in the 3 centuries old battle against colonialism. Not only did it disposes black people of their land, but also their dignity and by implication their humanity.

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