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Inkcubeko yethu ibonakala kwiilwimi zethu #MotherLanguageDay

Simthembile Xeketwana

Umbutho wezizwe eziManyeneyo zeHlabathi (UN) uphawula umhla wamashumi amabini ananye kweyoMqungu njengosuku apho ubani kufuneka akhumbule ukusebenzisa ulwimi lwakhe lweenkobe. Oku kuthetha ukuthi, olu ingalusuku olubonwa njengosuku lokuba abantu bazingce ngeelwimi zabo. Mhlawumbi uyabuza ukuba kutheni kufuneka umntu abe nosuku olunye kuphela apho azingca khona ngolwimi lwakhe? Nam ke ndikwelo, bekufanele ukuba wonke umntu uyazingca ngolwimi lwakhe nanini na, kodwa ke iimeko zobukoloniyali, nengcinezelo elidlule kulo eli lizwe loMzantsi Afrika nelizwekazi i-Afrika liphela, yenza kube nzima ukulibala ubungangamsha besiNgesi. Apha ndiza kukhe ndithi vandlavandla, ezinye zeemeko ezenza ukuba kube nzima ukusebenzisa iilwimi zethu. Ndize ke ndiqukumbele ngomkhombandlela womasikwenze singama-Afrika.

Kutheni kufuneka singazityesheli iilwimi zethu?

Bambi bathi “Zemk’ iinkomo magwalandini!” (Magona, 2014) xa bebona ukuba uncuthu lweelwimi zethu ziyatshabalala kwaye ukuzibuyisela kwinqanaba eliphezulu kuza kuthatha ixesha elide. OkaPrah (2014, 2016), naye uthetha ophele ngokulahleka kwenkcubeko, ubuntu, ubuni nobuthina bethu xa kulahlwa iilwimi zasekhaya. Le nkcubabuchopho ikwabhentsisa ukuba kuza kuba nzima kubantu base-Afrika ukuthatha inxaxheba ngokupheleleyo kwimiba yophuhliso lwelizwe xa bengasebenzisi iilwimi zabo zeenkobe (Prah, 2016).  Ukwaleka, kubalulekile ukuqonda ukuba, bambi bethu silahla nje imbo yethu ngophoyiyana, kuba nasiNgesi eso sizidla ngaso asisayi kusithetha ukodlula abantu baso.

Liyinene elithethwa nguRebone (2014) kwiphephandaba i-News25 elithi “… For generations spanning centuries, Africans spent half their time learning and mastering the languages, cultures and religion of their oppressors, to the detriment of their overall well-being”. Eneneni ngamanye amaxesha xa ubani ejonga emva uphawula ukuba, ukuzingca ngolwimi kwaphela. Oku ke kudala imbudumbudu ngakumbi kwinckubeko yethu singama-Afrika.  Inefuthe elibi ke le nto kuba ulwimi olu luhamba kunye nenkcubeko. Siza kuba ngoobani ke xa sishiya iilwimi zethu, sityeshela neenkcubeko zethu, kuba ke nokuba singade sithethe njengoondlebe zikh’ inyalanga asisayi kuze sibe ngabo futhi singenakuyiqonda ngokupheleleyo neyabo inkcubeko. Ndiyakholwa ke sakuphela sifana nemiduka yona ingaziwa nokuba yayivela kweliphi icala. Ukusebenzisa iilwimi zethu kuthetha ukuthi masibuyele embo, sithathe ilifa lethu apho lashiywa khona ngookhokho mhla kwafika abaseNtshona. Kaloku kufuneka sikhumbule ukuba singamaXhosa, hayi abelungu okanye abo bathetha ezinye iilwimi. Le nyanga ke xa siyigqiba kufuneka sikhumbule ukuthetha iilwimi zethu zesiNtu, kwaye sizingce ngoko.  

Ukubaluleka kweelwimi zethu kwimfundo

Into esathanda ukuxhalabisa kweli lizwe loMzantsi Afrika kukuba izikolo zityeshele ukufundisa ngeelwimi zesiNtu. Le ntlekele asimgqakhwe kwaye ibonakala kakhulu kwizikolo zabucala kunye nezo bezisakwaziwa ngokuba zi-Model C. Iyakhwankqisa eyokuba eMpuma Kapa nakwamanye amaPhondo abantwana abamnyama uya kufika begcwalise izikolo kodwa ulwimi lwabo lufundiswa njengolwimi lwesibini, size isiNgesi sifundiswe njengolwimi lokuqala. Sesona sithuko sikhulu ke esi nesijamelene naso kule mihla. Uphando lubonisa ukuba eneneni abafundi nabantwana bafunda ngakumbi kwaye intsingiselo iyacaca xa besebenzisa iilwimi zabo zeenkobe (Alexander 2009, Braam 2012). Oku kuthetha ukuthi kufuneka izikolo zizingise ekufundiseni ngeelwimi zethu zesiNtu kwaye oko kungawunyusa umgangatho wemfundo.  Le mfazwe asiyo yabantwana kuphela koko yeyabazali, kwaye kufuneka baqonde ukubaluleka kokuba abantwana bathetha iilwimi zabo ukwenza oko asilonyala, koko kukugcina ulwimi lwethu luphila. Eyona nto ibalulekileyo kukukhumbula ukuba iilwimi zethu zinako ukusetyenziswa njengeelwimi zokufunda nokufundisa.

Kananjalo ongasekhoyo uBawo u-Alexander (2005 & 2009) uthetha atyondyothele xa ecacisa ubungangamsha bolwimi lwasemzini nokuba kufuneka izikolo zijonge ekufundiseni abantwana ngeelwimi zeenkobe. Oku kubaluleka ngakumbi kuba xa abantwana befunda ngeelwimi zeenkobe kutsho kukhanye nangakumbi.

I-Afrika ke kudala ikhuthaza abantwana nezikolo ukuba makutyeshelwe iilwimi zelizwekazi kuthathwe ezo zasentshona. Oku kuvela kakhulu kwenye yeenkcubabuchopho ze-Afrika uNgugi wa Thiong’o (1981) kwincwadi yakhe ethi ‘Decolonising the Mind…” apha eli tshantliziyo alifunisi xa lithetha ngentlungu yokufunda kwizikolo apho kwakunyanzeleka ukuba uthethe ngolwimi lwasemzini nokuba sowudlala nabanye abafundi. UNgugi, uyandlala kakuhle eyokuba ngamanye amaxesha bekusithi ukuba umfundi ufunyenwe ethetha ulwimi lwakhe ohlwaywe kanobom, kwaye athwaliswe inkcenkce ebhalwe umbhalo omanyukunyezi. Ezi ke zezinye zezenzo ezibangela ukuba amandla eelwimi zesiNtu ehle kakhulu. Ukanti kunyaka ka-2014 sibone into ekumila kunje kwezinye zezikolo ezidumileyo zaseKapa apho abafundi bekufuneka bathwale uxanduva lokuthetha isiNgesi ngalo lonke ixesha. Ezi ziziganeko ezenza ukuba singabisakwazi nokuqaphela olu suku lokuba sithethe iilwimi zethu. Kananjalo, ngumkhuba omasikizi lo wokunyanzelwa kwabafundi ukuba balahle iingcambu zabo bathathe ezeminye imizi. Esi senzo sikwathetha ukuthi, oko bakufunda kumakhaya abo akubalulekanga kodwa kubaluleke ukuba bangqishe ngelikaVitoliya ulwimi kwaye xa besenza njalo bakuphemelela ebomini.

Igalelo losoopolitiki ekungathethini iilwimi zenkobe.

Asinakubashiya ngasemva abo benza imigaqo kwaye bekhuthaza ukuthethwa kweelwimi zethu kodwa xa kufuneka bethethile, basuke bacule isiLatini bevuma ngoma yimbi engahambelani noko bakuthethayo. Sukela oko kwaphatha abantu abamnyama kweli lizwe inqabile into yoMongameli abathetha iilwimi zabo. Oku ukufumana manqaphanqapha phaya kula ndlu yowisomthetho, xa abantu abafana noobawo uHolomisa bathe bathetha ngesiXhosa. Lo mkhwa ke wokukhumsha koosopolitiki awubakhuthazi abantwana kunye nabantu abamamelayo kuba kaloku babona le yesi siNgesi iyeyona iphucuke ukodlula ezi zabo iilwimi. Khawufane ucinge ke xa ongasekhoyo ubawo uRholihlahla, abo bebesakuba ngooMongabeli ubawo uMbeki, uMotlanthe kunye noZuma babekhethe ukuthetha ngeelwimi zabo,  hayi ulwimi lwasemzini. Khawufane ucinge ngomahluko onokwenzeka xa ubawo uRamaphosa enokuthetha ulwimi lwakhe.  Ndikhe ndibukele xa kufike ooMongameli bamanye amazwe beza nabantu abaza kuguqula iintetho zabo kodwa ezethu iinkokheli aziyi kwaphela kwezazo iilwimi, nditsho phantse zonke iinkokheli zase-Afrika. Khawufan’ ucinge? Liyinene elikaBiko (1978) elithi esona sixhobo  sinamandla nesisebenzayo ezandleni zomcinezeli, yingqondo yalowo ucinezelweyo.

Elokuqukumbela

Usuku olufana nolu akufuneki lukhunjulwe nje kuphela kuze kungabikho kwanto ilandelayo emva koko. Likhona ithemba xa kukho imigaqo-nkqubo efana neka-2014 (Incremental introduction of African Languages) nejongana nokuba zonke izikolo zeli loMzantsi Afrika kufuneka zifundise iilwimi zaseAfrika kwaye zifundise ngazo. Eli liphulo elalatha umkhombandlela omhle, kodwa kufuneka sonke sisebenzisane ukwenza oko.  Kananjalo amabanga emfundo enomsila nawo athe gqolo ukuphuhlisa ezi lwimi zaseAfrika, kwaye ithemba lingalihle mpela xa nezikolo zabucala zinokubonakalisa ukuthatha inxaxheba ekubunjweni nasekwakhiweni kweelwimi zethu. Sibajongile ke noosopolitiki bona bahlalele ukuthi ‘hong hong’ kula ndlu yowisomthetho.  Usuku lokubhiyoza ke kufuneka lubhiyozelwe kwaye sikhumbule ukuba kusekude engqinibeni xa kuthethwa ngeelwimi zethu zesiNtu.

Simthembile Xeketwana ngumhlohli kwiSebe loQeqesho ngoQulunqo-ziFundo kwiDyunivesithi yaseStellenbosch. 

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